Stoicism’s Virtue Problem

According to Zeno of Citium and Chrysippus, this is fine. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

The Stoic concept of virtue suffers from being indefinable.

That’s not to say that definitions are not offered. They are. Some of them peel off some layers of meaning to make the concept a bit less fuzzy, such as that it means “moral excellence” and it can be subcategorized into the four cardinal virtues of practical wisdom, courage, justice, and temperance. These, in turn, can be further described, but none of that…

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Douglas C. Bates

Douglas C. Bates

Author of “Pyrrho’s Way: The Ancient Greek Version of Buddhism”